Environment & Biodiversity Science & Tech

Tomato crop afflicted by several Mosiac Viruses

  • Growers in Maharashtra and Karnataka have reported considerable output losses as a result of two separate Mosiac Viruses.
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been blamed for crop losses in Maharashtra, while tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) has been blamed for crop losses in Karnataka and other South Indian states.
Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV)Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)
Target PlantsVarious plants, including cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, and ornamentalsPlants in the Solanaceae family, including tobacco, tomatoes, peppers, etc.
TransmissionAphids, seeds, mechanical contact, infected plant debrisDirect contact, mechanical transmission, contaminated plant material
SymptomsMosaic patterns, yellowing, stunted growth, leaf curling, distorted fruits or flowersMosaic patterns, yellowing, leaf curling, stunted growth
Impact on CropsReduced yield and qualityReduced yield, impact on flavor and quality
LongevityNot specifiedLong-term viability in dried plant debris, tobacco products, contaminated surfaces
Control MeasuresVector control, seed selection, crop rotationCrop rotation, sanitation, virus-free seeds/seedlings, cultural practices
CurabilityNo cure, management focuses on preventionNo cure, management focuses on prevention

The Effect on Tomato Crops

  • ToMV symptoms include alternating yellowish and dark green regions on the foliage, blisters on the leaves, leaf distortion, twisting of younger leaves, necrotic spots on fruits, and impaired fruit setting.
  • CMV symptoms include leaf distortion, with top and bottom leaves being the most affected, mosaic-like patterns of yellow and green spots in cucumber, fruit deformation, and decreased tomato yield.

Control Measures

  • ToMV control measures include ensuring biosafety requirements in nurseries, seed treatment, meticulous inspection of saplings before planting, regular infection monitoring, and removal of infected plants.
  • CMV: Because of its vast host range, controlling aphids is critical. Spraying quick-acting pesticides or mineral oils, monitoring aphid migration, and clearing fields of weeds and plant material that may harbour the virus are among the measures.
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