Majority Structures in Parliament

  • The women’s reservation measure was enacted by Parliament with a near-unanimous 2/3rd majority vote.
  • The Rajya Sabha approved the bill with an overwhelming majority vote.
  • The measure, which seeks to reserve one-third of seats in central and state legislatures for women, received 454 votes in the Lok Sabha.

Types of Majority Votes

 DescriptionExamples of Use
Absolute MajorityMore than 50% of the total membership of the house.Formation of government at the Center and States.
Effective MajorityMore than 50% of the effective strength of the house (total strength minus vacancies).Removal of Vice-president in RS, Speaker/Deputy Speaker removal.
Simple MajorityMore than 50% of the members present and voting.Passing Ordinary/Money/Financial bills, Confidence Motion, etc.
Special MajorityAll majorities other than absolute, effective, or simple majority.Constitutional amendment bills, National emergency approval, etc.
Types of Special Majority:
Article 2492/3rd members present and voting.Empowering Parliament to make laws in the state list.
Article 3682/3rd members present and voting + more than 50% of the total strength of the house.Constitutional amendment bills not affecting federalism.
Article 368 + State Ratification2/3 of members present and voting + a simple majority of state legislatures.Constitutional amendment bills affecting federalism.
Article 612/3 of the total number of members in the house.Impeachment of the Indian President.
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