Minority Issues

Create a new tribal identity

  • Droupadi Murmu, President of India, was presented with a book called Contributions of Tribal Leaders in the Freedom Struggle at a National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) ceremony.

Contributions of Tribal Leaders to the Freedom Struggle

  • Santhal Revolution: The Santhal Revolution, led by Buddhu Bhagat, Joa Bhagat, and Madara Mahato, was a major tribal rebellion against British colonial control in 1855. Other tribes, such as the Hos, Mundas, and Oraons, joined the Kols in their war.
  • The Paika Rebellion of 1817 was a tribal rebellion against the British in Odisha. The Paikas were a warrior class fighting for their rights and against exploitation by the British.
  • The Kol Revolt of 1831–32 was a tribal insurrection against the British in Chhattisgarh. The Kols fought for their land rights and against British exploitation.
  • Birsa Munda, a tribal leader from Jharkhand, led the Millenarian Movement against the British in the late nineteenth century. He mobilised the tribal community against the British, forcing them to enact legislation preserving indigenous land rights.
  • Rani Gaidinliu was a tribal leader from Nagaland who led an uprising against the British in the early twentieth century. She was a spiritual leader who battled for Naga rights and against British exploitation.
  • Laxman Naik was a tribal chieftain from Odisha who led an uprising against the British in the early twentieth century. He was a farmer who battled for farmers’ rights and against British exploitation.

Impact of Tribal Revolts during Freedom Struggle: 

  • Tribal revolts during the liberation movement played a crucial role in the British Raj’s hostility. They revolted not against the British, but against their policy towards Indians, which was forced on them without understanding their culture or its meaning. Later, this culminated to the uprising of 1857, which captured the attention of the entire country.


President Droupadi Murmu received the book “Contributions of Tribal Leaders in the Freedom Struggle” at an NCST event, which highlighted significant uprisings such as the Santhal, Paika, and Kol revolts, emphasising tribal resistance to British exploitation and influencing broader Indian agitation.


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