Environment & Biodiversity

CCUS policy framework—NITI Aayog

A report on the policy framework for Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage has been created by the NITI Aayog (CCUS).

Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS)

  • It entails either permanently storing carbon dioxide emissions hundreds of feet beneath the surface or utilising them to manufacture products like building materials (utilisation) (storage).
  • Emissions can be decreased by capturing carbon dioxide from industrial processes before it can escape into the atmosphere or by removing it directly from the atmosphere.
  • The carbon dioxide is subsequently recycled or delivered through a deep injection hole, where it is securely stored for all time.
  • Chevron is dedicated to making it work even though it’s a simple idea that needs infrastructure and policy considerations to achieve.

Steps involved in CCUS

  • Carbon dioxide storage is accomplished by separating CO2 from other gases created during industrial operations, such as those at steel or cement mills or coal- and gas-fired power plants.
  • Transport: The CO2 is then compressed and sent to a location for storage through pipelines, ships, or land vehicles.
  • Storage: The CO2 is lastly injected into underground rock formations for long-term storage.

NITI Aayog findings

  • In order for the nation’s CO2 emissions to be cut in half by 2050, CCUS will be essential.
  • The expense of the implementation procedures for the technology would be the main obstacle.
  • With the use of abundant coal resources and the creation of clean products, CCUS may help India become economically independent by lowering imports.
  • It is crucial in allowing emerging industries like coal gasification and India’s developing hydrogen economy.

Key sectors recognized for carbon utilization

  • Green urea can be made by electrolyzing water using renewable energy sources, CO2 that has been recovered, and green hydrogen that is cost-competitive. The conventional LNG/NG-based manufacture and import of ammonia and urea can be replaced or supplemented with green urea.
  • Applications in the food and beverage industry: CO2 is used in F&B applications including carbonated beverages, dry ice, and changed environment packaging, but the scales are much lower than with green urea.
  • Building materials (concrete and aggregates): In a developing nation like India, there is a sizable market for aggregates and concrete, offering an opportunity to use CO2 for the production of building materials through concrete curing and aggregate creation. These applications infuse CO2 in its liquid form without any conversion, which lowers the energy needs.
  • Chemicals (methanol and ethanol): Commercial-scale conversion of CO2 to methanol and ethanol from CO2 has been demonstrated in many regions of the world.

Why do this?

  • India’s annual CO2 emissions per person were around 1.9 tonnes, which was around one-fourth of China’s and less than 40% of the global average.
  • India requires a long-term strategy to decarbonize the industries that are responsible for 70% of its emissions.

Importance of CCUS

  • In order to achieve the Paris Agreement’s global net-zero aspirations, CCUS plays a crucial role in lowering the carbon intensity of industrial processes.
  • In fact, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Global Warming of 1.5 °C study, it won’t be able to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 without taking substantial mitigation measures.
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