Anniversary of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

On April 13, 1919, Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer ordered British forces to open fire on a peaceful gathering in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, creating an indelible mark on India’s cultural consciousness.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

Background: Protesting the contentious Rowlatt Act

  • The Imperial Legislative Council passed the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919.
  • It authorised the British government to arrest anyone suspected of terrorist activity.
  • It also authorised the government to hold such apprehended individuals for up to two years without trial.
  • It authorised the police to search a location without a warrant. Furthermore, it severely restricted press freedom.
  • The colonial government’s major goal was to control the country’s developing nationalist movement.
  • The British were also concerned about a Ghadarite Revolution in Punjab and the rest of the country. 

The day

  • The massacre occurred on April 13, 1919, when troops from the British Indian Army (Gurkha and Sikh infantry battalions) led by Col. Reginald Dyer opened fire on a crowd of Indians.
  • Civilians had gathered in a peaceful protest to oppose the arrest and deportation of two national leaders, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew.
  • Without warning, Dyer ordered his forces to fire on the unarmed crowd, which included children.
  • The indiscriminate firing lasted around 10 minutes, killing at least 1000 people and injuring over 1500 more.


  • Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood to protest the massacre.
  • Gandhiji renounced the title ‘Kaiser-e-hind’ bestowed upon him by the British for his contributions during the Boer War in South Africa.
  • Michael O’Dwyer, the then Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab who had approved Dyer’s conduct, was assassinated in London by Udham Singh in 1940 in retaliation for the massacre.
  • The heroic treatment of Dyer’s horrible deed once again established a standard of imperial arrogance. 

Hunter Commission of Inquiry

  • In October 1919, Edwin Montagu, the Secretary of State for India, established a committee to investigate the occurrences in Punjab.
  • Originally designated as the Disorders Inquiry Committee, it became more generally known as the Hunter Commission.
  • The commission investigation was ended with no notable findings.
  • Nonetheless, India has long demanded that Britain apologise for the carnage. 

Sannati Buddhist Stupa

  • Sannati is a small village on the banks of the Bhima River in Kalaburagi’s Chittapur Taluka (Gulbarga).
  • In 1994, ASI began excavations in the adjoining village of Kanaganahalli, finding astonishing antiques.
  • Among the discoveries was the Adholoka Maha Chaitya, or the Great Stupa of the Netherworlds.
  • It dates back to the Maurya and Satavahana dynasties.

Key findings

  • The Maha Stupa measures 22 metres in diameter and 17 metres in height.
  • It had beautiful ornamentation and architectural grandeur, representing historic workmanship and spiritual veneration.
  • The digs revealed a stone sculpture of Emperor Ashoka flanked by his queens and entourage, offering a rare peek into Mauryan history.
  • The stone picture is thought to be the only surviving image of the Mauryan Emperor with the inscription ‘Raya Asoko’ in Brahmi on it.
  • Furthermore, around 250 Brahmi inscriptions, Prakrit-language dome slabs describing Jataka stories, and drum slabs embellished with Dharma-Chakras were uncovered.
  • According to the inscriptions, it was patronised by the Hinayana and Mahayana branches of Buddhism in the third and fourth century AD, respectively. 

A 900-year-old Chalukyan inscription was unearthed

A 900-year-old Kannada inscription from the Kalyana Chalukya dynasty was discovered neglected at Gangapuram, a temple town in Jadcherla mandal, Mahabubnagar, Telangana.

Origin and Expansion:

  • The Chalukyas arose as a powerful dynasty in the sixth century CE, with their capital in Badami, present-day Karnataka.
  • The dynasty’s founder, Pulakeshin I, arrived to the throne in 543 CE and expanded the empire by defeating the Kadambas, Mauryas, and other neighbouring kingdoms.
  • Pulakeshin II, one of the Chalukyan Empire’s most distinguished monarchs, took the throne in 610 CE and considerably extended its area through military victories and diplomatic partnerships.
  • Pulakeshin II led the empire to its pinnacle, extending its power over most of Southern and Central India, including modern-day Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh.

Dynastic Divisions:

The Chalukyan Empire saw the rise of several dynastic branches, including the Badami Chalukyas, Western Chalukyas (also known as the Later Chalukyas), and Eastern Chalukyas.

  1. Badami Chalukyas governed from their capital, Badami, and were renowned for their contributions to art, architecture, and literature.
  2. Western Chalukyas, located in Kalyani (present-day Basavakalyan), continued their predecessors’ legacy and achieved power over sections of modern-day Karnataka and Maharashtra.
  3. Eastern Chalukyas, centred in Vengi (present-day Andhra Pradesh), established their own kingdom and played an important part in South India’s political landscape. 

Religion and Faith:

  • The Chalukyas were supporters of art, literature, and architecture, creating a thriving cultural milieu within their empire.
  • They supported Hinduism as the main religion and helped build many temples dedicated to Hindu deities, notably the well-known Virupaksha Temple at Pattadakal.
  • The Chalukyas also supported Jainism and Buddhism, resulting in the construction of Jain caves and monasteries in areas under their rule.

Decline and Legacy:

  • The Chalukyan Empire declined gradually from the 12th century due to internal disputes, dynastic rivalry, and external invasions, leaving a legacy.
  • The Western Chalukya dynasty ended with the defeat of Vikramaditya VI by the Cholas in the 12th century, while the Eastern Chalukyas ruled Vengi until the 13th century.


  • The empire was divided into administrative units called ‘Rashtras or Mandalas’, each led by a ‘Mandaleshwara’ (local administrative officer).
  • At the highest levels of governance, regional governors known as ‘Rashtrakutas’ were appointed to supervise various mandalas and report directly to the king.
  • Revenue administration was critical to the empire’s survival, with land revenue serving as its principal source of income. To secure a consistent cash stream, the empire maintained a comprehensive land measurement and taxation system.

Arts and Culture:

  • Sculpture thrived under the patronage of the Chalukya monarchs, with fine stone carvings decorating temple complexes and royal monuments.
  • The magnificent Nataraja sculpture in Pattadakal, depicting Lord Shiva in a cosmic dance position, is a masterwork of Chalukyan art.
  • Pampa, a Chalukyan court poet, wrote the Kannada epic poem “Vikramarjuna Vijaya” (also known as “Pampa Bharata” or “Pampa Ramayana”), which tells the story of the Mahabharata from Arjuna’s point of view.
  • Classical dance traditions such as Bharatanatyam emerged during the Chalukyan era, as demonstrated by sculptures found in temples such as the Mallikarjuna Temple in Pattadakal.
  • Ranna, a notable Kannada poet of the Chalukyan period, wrote the “Ajita Tirthankara Purana,” an epic poem commemorating the lives of the Jain Tirthankaras.


  • The ‘Gadag Style’, which combines Dravidian and Nagara styles, distinguishes Chalukyan temple architecture.
  • The Virupaksha Temple at Pattadakal, erected by the Chalukyan monarch Vikramaditya II in the eighth century, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site known for its intricate sculptures and towering gopurams (entry gates).
  • Similarly, the Durga Temple at Aihole, built in the seventh century, exemplifies Chalukyan architecture with intricate pillars and sculpted panels showing Hindu deities and mythological themes. 

Story about Usha Mehta and the Secret Congress Radio

  • The film “Ae Watan Mere Watan” was just released on an OTT platform and dives into the story of Usha Mehta and Congress Radio during the 1942 Quit India Movement.

Who was Usha Mehta (1920–2000)?

  • Usha Mehta was born March 25, 1920, in Mumbai, India.
  • Usha Mehta, inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s ideals of peaceful resistance and civil disobedience, became an active participant in the Indian independence movement at an early age.
  • Usha Mehta’s participation in the radio broadcasting network known as “Secret Congress Radio” was one of her most significant contributions to the independence struggle.
  • She received the Padma Vibhushan, one of India’s highest civilian decorations, in 1998. 

The Secret ‘Congress Radio’

  • The historic Quit India Resolution was passed during a meeting of the All India Congress Committee in Bombay on August 8, 1942.
  • To challenge the British-controlled AIR, an underground radio station known as Freedom Radio, Ghost Radio, or Congress Radio was established.
  • Usha Mehta, a 22-year-old master’s student at Wilson College, became the voice of Congress Radio.
  • The radio was a costly project, but finances were raised through a variety of channels, including contributions from Mehta’s colleague, Babubhai Khakhar.
  • Nariman Abarbad Printer, a radio technical expert, built the Congress radio transmission equipment.
  • Their first transmission was on August 14, 1942.
  • In her voice, she said, “This is the Congress Radio calling on 42.34 from somewhere in India.”
  • Initially, they transmitted twice a day in Hindi and English. However, they decreased it to once every evening between 30 and 8.30 p.m.
  • On November 12, 1942, authorities invaded the radio station while Vande Mataram was being played, arresting Mehta and others. 

Ancient Chalukyan Temples and Inscriptions Discovered

  • Recent archaeological discoveries in Mudimanikyam village, Nalgonda district, have revealed two Badami Chalukya temples dating back 1,300-1,500 years and a label inscription from the 8th or 9th century AD.
  • These discoveries illuminated the region’s rich historical legacy.

Ancient Mudimanikyam Temples

  • The Mudimanikyam Temples, built between 543 AD and 750 AD, have the unique Kadamba Nagara style in the Rekha Nagara format, which is uncommon in Telangana.
  • Architectural Significance: Research emphasises the value of these temples as historical records of the Badami Chalukya period. With modest renovation, these can be valuable artefacts of Telangana’s historic architecture.
  • Aside from the Badami Chalukya temples at Alampur, these temples are outstanding examples of that era’s architectural prowess.

Label Inscription: Discovery 

  • The label inscription, discovered on a pillar of a collection of five temples in the town, dates back to the eighth or ninth centuries AD.
  • Meaning: While the actual meaning of the inscription, ‘Gandaloranru,’ is unknown, ASI says it may represent a heroic title, with ‘Ganda’ in Kannada meaning ‘hero.’
  • Historical Context: The presence of the inscription suggests that five temples known as Panchakuta existed during the late Badami Chalukya dynasty. However, these temples are no longer in use, with one missing the Shivalinga and the other housing a Vishnu image.

Badami Chalukyas’ Legacy and Achievements

  • Pulakeshin I established the Chalukya dynasty in 550, with Badami (Vatapi) in present-day Karnataka serving as its capital.
  • The Badami Chalukyas ruled over areas that included modern Karnataka and substantial sections of Andhra Pradesh.
  • During Pulakesi II’s reign, the empire extended northward, blocking Harsha’s advance and conquering the Vishnukundins in southeastern Deccan.
  • Diplomatic Relations: During his reign, the dynasty maintained diplomatic relations with the Chinese and Persian empires, emphasising its worldwide status.
  • Vikramaditya Dynasty: The dynasty saw a comeback under Vikramaditya I, who ousted the Pallavas from Badami, and reached its pinnacle under Vikramaditya II, who seized Kanchipuram from them.
  • Decline and End: In 753, Rashtrakuta Dantidurga deposed the final Badami Chalukya king, Kirtivarman I, bringing the dynasty to an end.

Cultural feats

  • Art and Architecture: The era saw the rise of Vesara architecture, which combined South Indian and North Indian forms and was exemplified by sites such as Pattadakal, Badami, and Aihole.
  • Coinage: Chalukya coins included legends in Nagari and Kannada scripts, with motifs like as temples, lions, and lotuses.
  • Religious Patronage: Originally followers of Vedic Hinduism, the Chalukyas later adopted Shaivism, cultivating sects such as Pashupata, Kapalikas, and Kalamukhas while also encouraging Jainism. 

Government and Administration

  • Military Prowess: The Chalukya army, which included infantry, cavalry, and a formidable navy, used novel tactics, such as intoxicating elephants before battle.
  • Administrative Structure: The empire was organised into provinces, districts, and smaller administrative divisions, with feudal lords ruling autonomous areas.

The ULFA Story and the Historic Tripartite Agreement

  • A memorandum of settlement was signed by the Union Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), the Assam government, and the pro-talks side of the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA).
  • This “tripartite settlement is significant for Assam’s peace,” according to the government, who claims to have succeeded in removing all violent groups in the state.

Assam’s and ULFA’s Struggle

  • The United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) was founded in 1979 by radical thinkers in response to growing worries about the identity and resources of the indigenous Assamese population.
  • Cultural and Economic Transitions: The flood of migrants caused by the expanding tea, coal, and oil industries, combined with the Partition and refugee influx, heightened concerns among local Assamese.
  • The Assam Agreement of 1985: Aimed at resolving the issue of foreigners in Assam, the Accord was a response to a prolonged mass movement but failed to address all concerns, leading to the formation of ULFA.

Four Decades of Violence and the State’s Reaction

  • Armed Struggle of the ULFA: Through armed warfare, the group sought a sovereign Assamese nation, resulting in kidnappings, extortion, and loss of life.
  • In response, the Indian government launched Operation Bajrang in 1990, imposing President’s rule as well as the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) in Assam.
  • Internal Divisions and Allegations from the State: Internal squabbles arose within the ULFA, with one faction (SULFA) surrendering and allegedly carrying out state-sponsored’secret executions’ of other ULFA members.

ULFA’s External Support and Links

  • Camps in Neighbouring Countries for External Support and Links: ULFA established camps in Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Bhutan, using them for training, housing, and the launch of cross-border operations.
  • Connections with Global Terrorist Organisations: The group formed ties with Islamic terror organisations and Pakistan’s ISI, with its military chief reportedly meeting Osama Bin Laden.
  • Initial Peace Talks: In 2005, the ULFA organised a ‘People’s Consultative Group’ for peace talks, but discussions fell through, leading to further violence.
  • Renewed Peace Efforts: Following 2008, several ULFA commanders, particularly Arabinda Rajkhowa, pursued peace talks, resulting in a serious schism within the organisation.
  • Demands of the Pro-Talks side: In 2012, the pro-talks side submitted a 12-point charter of demands, resulting in current conversations and the historic tripartite peace deal.

Tripartite Peace Treaty

  • The accord reached by the pro-talks ULFA side, the administration of India, and the Assam state administration is a crucial step towards peace.
  • Opinions of Experts: Journalists and specialists like Rajeev Bhattacharya see the agreement as a welcome step forward, but they are sceptical about its completeness and usefulness.
  • Optimism in the Government: The Union Home Minister voiced trust in the accord as ushering in a new era of peace, while the Assam Chief Minister expressed interest in engaging with the anti-talks side.

Deciphering Goa’s Annexation: Operation Vijay and Historical Context

  • Goa’s liberation: On December 19, 1961, India successfully seized Goa, bringing an end to years of Portuguese colonial control.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi has accused former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of failing to assist Goan satyagrahis and postponing military action.

A Historical Overview of Goa’s Colonisation

  • Portuguese Rule: Admiral Afonso de Albuquerque established Goa as a Portuguese colony in 1510.
  • Long Colonial Encounter: For more than four centuries, Goa was at the centre of regional and global power battles, resulting in a distinct Goan identity.
  • Nationalist feeling: During the early twentieth century, nationalist feeling against Portuguese rule rose, paralleling India’s anti-British agitation.

Beginning of the Freedom Movement

  • Goan Nationalism: Tristao de Braganza Cunha, hailed as the father of Goan nationalism, founded the Goa National Congress in 1928.
  • Lohia’s Influence: In 1946, Ram Manohar Lohia’s rally in Goa galvanized the freedom movement, advocating civil liberties and integration with India.
  • Armed Resistance: Groups like the Azad Gomantak Dal (AGD) advocated for an armed struggle for liberation.
  • The start of the Freedom Movement
  • Tristao de Braganza Cunha, known as the “Father of Goan Nationalism,” formed the Goa National Congress in 1928.
  • Lohia’s Impact: Ram Manohar Lohia’s demonstration in Goa in 1946 galvanised the freedom movement, promoting civil freedoms and Indian unification.
  • Armed Resistance: Organisations such as the Azad Gomantak Dal (AGD) campaigned for an armed struggle for independence.

Goa’s Annexation: Recognition and Legal Status

  • Recognition by the Supreme Court: The Supreme Court of India upheld the annexation, ruling that the law of occupation did not apply.
  • Portugal’s Recognition: Through a retroactive treaty, Portugal recognised Indian sovereignty over Goa in 1974.
  • International Law: Forceful annexations after the UN Charter are forbidden under jus cogens, although Goa’s annexation is an exception.

Why did Goa remain under Portuguese rule after 1947?

  • Nehru’s Peace Image: To maintain his global peace leader image, Nehru avoided military action.
  • The Aftermath of Partition: The agony of Partition and the Indo-Pak conflict diverted India’s attention.
  • Concerns regarding internationalisation: There were concerns about internationalising the issue.
  • Lack of Internal Demand: Gandhi argued that more groundwork was required to unite Goa’s different political views.

Nehru’s Dilemma and Military Action Delay

  • Nehru prioritised India’s international position and exhausted diplomatic possibilities.
  • NATO Strategy for Portugal: Goa was reclassified by Portugal in order to be protected by NATO.
  • Indigenous Liberation Movements: Nehru juggled diplomatic efforts with support for indigenous liberation movements.

Factors Contributing to the 1961 Military Offensive 

  • Portuguese Aggression: Following the 1955 shooting on Satyagraha, India severed ties with Portugal.
  • India’s Decolonization Leadership: India’s participation in global anti-colonial movements increased pressure on Goa to be liberated.
  • Criticism from African Nations: African criticism during a 1961 symposium emphasised the need to eliminate Portuguese colonialism.
  • Decisive Military Action: These elements resulted in Operation Vijay, a two-day military campaign that liberated Goa.

@the end

  • The end of Portuguese colonialism in India was signified by the annexation.
  • Historical Importance: The liberation of Goa remains a watershed moment in India’s struggle against colonialism and the union of its territory.

Syama Prasad Mookerjee and his Achievements

  • Following the Supreme Court’s decision to uphold the repeal of Article 370, many cited Dr Syama Prasad Mookerjee (1901-53), an outspoken opponent of Kashmir’s’special status’ in the Indian Union.

Syama Prasad Mookerjee, who was he?

  • Syama Prasad Mookerjee, an influential Indian politician, attorney, and professor, was instrumental in establishing India’s political environment throughout the mid-twentieth century.
  • Mookerjee, who was born on July 6, 1901, in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), rose to prominence as a significant leader and ardent supporter of Indian nationalism and Hindu politics.

Early Childhood and Education

  • Mookerjee was born into a prominent Brahmin family from Jirat, Hooghly District, in West Bengal.
  • He succeeded intellectually, attending prestigious institutes such as Presidency College and the University of Calcutta.
  • Mookerjee was admitted to the English Bar and became a lawyer after studying at Lincoln’s Inn in London.

Political Career

  • Mookerjee began his political career as a member of the Indian National Congress, representing Calcutta University in the Bengal Legislative Council.
  • Hindu Mahasabha affiliation: He then became president of the Hindu Mahasabha, a right-wing Hindu nationalist organisation.
  • Mookerjee strongly lobbied for Bengal division to protect Hindu interests, which resulted in the foundation of a distinct West Bengal within the Indian Union.
  • Mookerjee resigned as Finance Minister of Bengal Province in 1942, citing the British government’s harsh policies and attempts to retain control of India.

Contributions to the Independence of India

  • Minister for Industry and Supply: After independence, Mookerjee served as India’s first Minister for Industry and Supply in Jawaharlal Nehru’s government.
  • Nehru-Liaquat Pact and resignation: In 1950, he resigned from Nehru’s government in protest of the Nehru-Liaquat Pact, which he claimed jeopardised Hindu interests in East Bengal (now Bangladesh).
  • Mookerjee founded the Bharatiya Janata Sangh in 1951 with the backing of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), establishing the groundwork for the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

Mookerjee’s Opposition to Article 370

  • Mookerjee was convinced that Article 370 fostered a sense of separatist and separation inside the country, leading to the fracturing of India’s unity.
  • Mookerjee famously declared, “Ek desh mein do Vidhan, do Pradhan aur Do Nishan nahi chalenge” (One nation cannot have two constitutions, two prime ministers, and two flags), emphasising his opposition to Jammu and Kashmir’s distinct status.
  • Reservations regarding special status: Mookerjee voiced worry that Jammu and Kashmir’s unique status conferred under Article 370 might delay the state’s complete integration into the Indian Union.
  • Inequality and separatist: He argued that extending special favours to one state based on religion or geographical considerations would breed inequality and separatism.

Ideological Position and Legacy

  • Influence on the BJP’s policy agenda: His ideas and vision continue to drive the Bharatiya Janata Party’s policies and agenda.
  • Mookerjee’s premature death in captivity in 1953 remains a source of contention and intrigue, with calls for an independent investigation.

Ancient Egyptian Mummified Baboons: A Scientific Breakthrough

  • Lortet and Gaillard Expedition: In 1905, French Egyptologists Louis Lortet and Claude Gaillard travelled to Luxor, Egypt, to explore mummified monkeys discovered in Gabbanat el-Qurud, popularly known as the ‘Valley of the Monkeys’.
  • remarkable Discoveries: They uncovered baboon remains, which was remarkable given that baboons are not endemic to Egypt.

Resolving the Mystery of Mummified Baboons

  • The scientists analysed mitochondrial DNA to trace the baboons’ ancestors to ancient Adulis in modern-day coastal Eritrea.
  • DNA Comparison: To identify the geographical origin, ancient DNA from a mummified baboon was matched to DNA from current baboons.
  • Dr. Kopp’s Opinions: She emphasised considerable study on baboon genetic diversity, which aids in reliable comparisons.
  • The research also proposed a likely location for the lost city of Punt, which is notable for its significance in the growth of marine technology.

Significance of a Mummified Baboon

  • Ancient Egyptian Practices: Egyptians mummified animals such as cats for religious purposes and as sacrifices to deities such as Bastet and Thoth.
  • Baboon Mummies Jigsaw: Baboon mummification was unusual due to its non-native status in Egypt. Baboons are native to Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

Mitochondrial DNA’s Role in the Study

  • Isotopes of Strontium and Oxygen: These isotopes leave various regional marks in teeth, bones, and hair.
  • 2017 A research successfully retrieved DNA from a human mummy, opening the door to genetic examination of mummified remains.
  • DNA Analysis Difficulties: Mummification procedures had to leave the DNA intact and uncorrupted.

Relationship between Adulis and Punt

  • Between 332 BC and 395 AD, Adulis was recognised as a commercial centre for luxury goods and animals.
  • References in Art and manuscripts: Ancient paintings and manuscripts identified Punt as a source of exotic creatures such as baboons.
  • Geographical Continuity: The investigation demonstrated a relationship between Punt and Adulis, bolstering hypotheses that they were the same trading centre across time.

Nolamba Pallavas

  • Ancient treasures from the Nolamba Pallavas dynasty were discovered at Cholemarri hamlet, 22 km from Penukonda in the Sri Sathya Sai region.

Important Findings

  • Location of the Battlefield: Evidence points to a bloody war between the Nolamba Pallavas and the Bhana-Vaidambas in the ninth century AD.
  • Artefacts and inscriptions:
  • In the meadows, an inscription of Mahendra Nolambadhi Raja (875-897 AD), monarch of Henjeru (now Hemavati), was discovered.
  • Near Anjaneyaswamy temple, hero stones with Telugu inscriptions (written in ancient Kannada script) from the Nolamba and Vijayanagara eras were uncovered.

About Nolamba Dynasty

  • The Nolamba Dynasty ruled from the eighth to the twelfth century C.E.
  • Nolambavadi area, which includes portions of southeast Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Initially feudatories to the Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami, Gangas, and Rashtrakutas, and eventually to the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Inscriptions frequently relate to Nolamba Pallava.
  • Capitals: Initially Chitradurga, but subsequently Hemavati.
  • Origin:
    • Mangala Nomabathi Raja (735-785 A.D.) founded the kingdom.
    • As governors under the Pallavas and Chalukyas.
    • Pallavas, Chalukyas, Banas, and Vaidumbas experienced allegiance transfers.
    • The word “Nolambas” was used with the rise of the Chalukyas under Vikramaditya I.
  • Decline: Overrun by Marasimha, the Ganga ruler who assumed the title Nolambakulantaka.
  • Cultural contributions include the construction of major temple complexes such as the Kalleshwara Temple in Aralaguppe, the Bhoganandishwara Temple in Nandi, and the Ramalingeshwara Temple in Avani.
  • Religious affiliation: Shaivites predominate, with temples devoted to Lord Shiva.
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