Art & Culture History

Alluri Sitarama Raju

  • Draupadi Murmu, the President of India, saluted independence warrior Alluri Sitarama Raju during the closing ceremony of his 125th birth anniversary festivities in Hyderabad.
  • The President emphasised Raju’s struggle against injustice and exploitation in India’s freedom movement.
  • Raju is thought to have been born in Andhra Pradesh in 1897 or 1898.
  • At the age of 18, he became a sanyasi (ascetic), and his austerity, knowledge of astrology and medicine, and ability to tame wild animals earned him a mythical aura among the hill and tribal people.

Activities that are revolutionary

  • Raju organised the hill people’s anger in Ganjam, Visakhapatnam, and Godavari into effective guerilla resistance against the British.
  • The Forest Act of 1882, among other colonial policies, threatened native podu agriculture and drove people to work.
  • In August 1922, tribals and muttadars (village headmen) affected by the British government’s limitation of their rights banded together in armed resistance against colonial rule.

Contribution to the Liberation Struggle

  • The Rampa or Manyam Rebellion, Raju’s guerrilla campaign, lasted until May 1924.
  • The insurrection took place at the same time as Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • Raju admired Gandhi and advocated for him to wear khadi (homespun cloth) and abstain from drinking.
  • However, Raju believed that India could only be liberated by the use of force, which contradicted Gandhi’s nonviolent ideal.

Detection and Execution

  • Raju’s resistance ended when he was apprehended by the British in May 1924.
  • He was executed for his participation in the uprising.
  • Raju became renowned as the ‘Manyam Veerudu,’ or Hero of the Jungle, and his contributions to India’s freedom war remain honoured.


Overall, Alluri Sitharama Raju was instrumental in spearheading a guerilla rebellion against British colonial control, battling for tribal communities’ rights, and lobbying for India’s independence through coercive means.

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