Telangana Statehood Day

With assembly elections just months away, political parties across the board commemorated Telangana’s 9th year of independence on June 2.

Telangana’s formation

  • The article explains the historical context and the struggle for statehood that resulted in the foundation of Telangana, India’s newest state.
  • It presents a chronological description of the major events and reasons that formed Telangana’s route to independence.

Why was Telangana carved out of Andhra Pradesh?

  • Telangana was divided from Andhra Pradesh primarily for historical, cultural, and developmental grounds, as well as regional people’s desires. The following are the primary causes behind the separation:
  • Differences in History and Culture: Andhra Pradesh and Telangana have unique historical and cultural identities. Telangana had its own language, Telugu, which had its own accent and cultural practises. Telangana’s citizens believed that their distinct identity was not fully recognised or represented within the bigger state of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Socioeconomic Disparities: Despite its abundant natural resources, the Telangana region has been underdeveloped in comparison to the coastal Andhra region. Telangana residents believed that their region’s development requirements had been overlooked, resulting in socioeconomic inequities and unfair distribution of resources and opportunities.
  • Demand for Local Control: The demand for separate statehood grew as people realised that local control and governance would be more successful in addressing Telangana’s distinct needs and aspirations. Telangana’s citizens desired more autonomy and decision-making ability over their own issues.
  • Political Representation: Some Telangana leaders and organisations felt marginalised in the political landscape of combined Andhra Pradesh. They believed that establishing a distinct state would improve political representation and involvement.
  • Water and Resource Sharing: Disputes over water resource sharing, notably the Krishna and Godavari rivers, soured relations between Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. The perceived inequitable distribution of water resources fueled support for a breakaway state.
  • These considerations, together with prolonged rallies and protests led by various political and social organisations, resulted in the partition of Andhra Pradesh and the establishment of Telangana as a distinct state on June 2, 2014.

PART I: Andhra Pradesh’s Pre-Independence and Formation

  • Post-independence Hyderabad State (1948-1951): The significance of Hyderabad as a part of the Princely State and the Urdu-speaking Muslim elite’s supremacy.
  • Brutalities under Nizam’s reign and the Razakars (1945-1948): The communist-backed revolt and the brutal response of the Nizam’s local militia, the Razakars, resulting in atrocities against the Telangana people.
  • The Standstill Agreement and its Breach (1947-1948): The signing of the Standstill Agreement with Hyderabad, the Nizam’s subsequent breach of its conditions, and India’s interference through “Operation Polo.”
  • Hyderabad’s Part-B status (1951-1956): After India’s independence and the end of Nizam’s reign, Hyderabad was admitted as a Part-B state with an elected chief minister.

PART II: Linguistic Reorganisation and the Development of AP

  • Demand for a separate Telugu state by Potti Sriramalu (1952): Potti Sriramalu’s fasting protest, which caused instability and eventually led to the foundation of Andhra State.
  • Formation of Andhra State from Madras State (1953): In response to the desire for a separate Telugu state, the Madras state was divided and Andhra State, including the north and north-eastern districts, was formed.
  • Formation of the States Reorganisation Committee (1953-1955): The formation of a committee to handle the subject of linguistic reorganisation, as well as the committee’s following proposals.
  • Telangana’s position in linguistic restructuring (1955-1956): The argument about whether Telangana should be merged with Andhra or remain a separate state, which contradicts the SRC’s recommendations.
  • Merger of Andhra State and Telangana (1956): Against the suggestion of the SRC, the decision was made to unite Andhra State and Telangana, culminating in the formation of Andhra Pradesh with Hyderabad as its capital.

PART III: Telangana Struggle and the Establishment of Telangana State

  • Protests for Mulki Rules prior to independence (1952-1947): Protests demanded the implementation of the Mulki Rules, which guaranteed job reservations for Telangana residents even before India’s independence.
  • Protests and the formation of the Telangana Praja Samiti in 1969: The huge protests in 1969 that resulted in the formation of the TPS and the demand for a separate Telangana state.
  • Mulki Rules Act repealed in 1973: Indira Gandhi introduces the 32nd Amendment to the Constitution, removing the Mulki Rules Act and having an impact on the Telangana movement.
  • In 2001, KCR revived the Telangana movement by resigning from the Telugu Desam Party and forming the Telangana Rashtra Samithi, reviving the demand for a separate Telangana state.
  • KCR’s hunger strike and the promise of Telangana statehood (2009): KCR’s fast-unto-death in 2009 in response to the death of Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Y S Rajsekhara Reddy prompted the Congress party to vow the formation of Telangana.
  • Telangana state formation in 2014: The conflict culminated with the foundation of Telangana as a separate state in 2014, with Hyderabad serving as the capital for ten years.
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