Science & Tech


  • Titan Submersible’s Hope: The Titan submersible lost all of its crew in an undersea implosion.
  • Indigenous Indian Submersible: Indian scientists are planning a comparable dive in an indigenous vehicle known as the Matsya-6000.

What is Samudrayaan Mission?

  • Samudrayaan is a massive ocean/sea expedition set to launch in October 2021.
  • Its goal is to create “a self-propelled manned submersible capable of transporting three humans to a water depth of 6,000 metres in the ocean, equipped with a suite of scientific sensors and tools for deep ocean exploration.”
  • It aims to conduct deep ocean exploration for non-living resources such as polymetallic manganese nodules, methane hydrates, hydro-thermal sulphides, and cobalt crusts at depths ranging from 1000 to 5500 metres.

MATSYA 6000 Information

  • MATSYA 6000 is an indigenously developed manned submersible vehicle.
  • It will make deep ocean exploration easier for the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
  • According to the ANI news agency, it has a 12-hour operational time and a 96-hour emergency endurance.
  • The piloted submersible will allow scientists to directly see and study hitherto undiscovered deep-sea locations.

Specifications for design

  • Titanium Enclosure: The Matsya-6000 has a titanium shell on the front and back for added safety over carbon fibre.
  • Syntactic Foam: The submersible is outfitted with syntactic foam, a flotation device that aids in locating it even if it is unable to resurface.

Need for such a mission

  • India has a unique maritime situation, with a 7517-kilometer-long coastline that is home to nine coastal states and 1,382 islands.
  • Blue Economy: The mission seeks to strengthen the Central Government’s vision of a “New India,” which includes the Blue Economy as one of the ten key elements of growth.
  • Coastal Economy: With three sides surrounded by oceans and roughly 30% of the country’s population living in coastal areas, India’s coastal economy is important. It promotes fisheries and aquaculture, tourism, sustainable livelihoods, and blue trade.

Titan Submersible Precautions in Place:

  • Lessons Learned The Indian scientists working on Matsya-6000 ensure that the crew has numerous backup safety procedures.
  • Safety System Reviews: In light of the Titan submersible incident, there may be a review of the deployed safety mechanisms.
  • Prior to the main dives, NIOT divers will do test dives up to 500 metres deep inside a steel submersible.
  • Steel vs. Titanium: Titanium is preferred for resurfacing ease and balancing extreme ocean depths because it is stronger yet lighter than steel.
  • Spherical Hull Perfection: The hull of the submersible must be perfectly spherical in order to disperse tremendous pressure uniformly at ocean depths.

The Effect on Safety Measures

  • Examining Safety Measures: The Titan submersible incident causes a reevaluation and review of the Matsya-6000 mission’s safety precautions.
  • Including Lessons Learned: The disaster provides a chance to improve the safety and dependability of the next Indian mission.
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