International Relations

Lessons from Indo-US Agriculture Cooperation

  • The role of the Soviet Union: The Soviet Union aided India’s development by providing capital equipment and technology.
  • Contribution of the United States: The US, together with the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, contributed to India’s agricultural development.

The Soviet Union’s Contribution to Industrialization

  • Collaborations with the Soviet bloc resulted in the creation of significant industrial enterprises and institutions in India.
  • Examples include the Bhilai and Bokaro steel plants, the Barauni and Koyali refineries, Bharat Heavy Electricals, Heavy Engineering Corporation, Mining & Allied Machinery Corporation, Neyveli Thermal Power Station, Indian Drugs & Pharmaceuticals, and Ankleshwar oil prospecting and drilling.

US’s Contribution to Agricultural Development

  • Lesser-known involvement: During the 1950s and 1960s, the United States, along with the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, played a critical role in India’s agricultural development.
  • The United States provided assistance in areas such as agricultural education, research, extension services, and technology transfer.

Model of Land Grant in the United States

  • Major H.S. Sandhu and Chief Secretary A.N. Jha visited land-grant universities in the United States for inspiration in 1950.
  • Proposal for integrated agricultural institutions: The visit sparked the idea for India to develop integrated agricultural universities.
  • Establishment of the UP Agricultural University: On November 17, 1960, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru inaugurated the UP Agricultural University in the Tarai area of Uttar Pradesh.

Agricultural University Expansion

  • ICAR blueprint publication: The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) issued a blueprint titled “Blueprint for a Rural University in India” in the late 1950s.
  • Financial assistance: Beginning in the late 1950s, the United States provided support for the creation of agricultural institutions in India through USAID.
  • Collaboration with US land-grant institutions: In the late 1950s and early 1960s, agricultural universities in India were linked with US land-grant institutions for expertise and curriculum design.

M.S. Swaminathan’s Green Revolution

  • Traditional variants have the following characteristics: When the ear-heads were heavy with well-filled grains, traditional wheat and rice varieties were tall and prone to lodging.
  • Semi-dwarf types are being introduced: In the 1960s, semi-dwarf cultivars with sturdy stems that tolerated heavy fertiliser applications were produced.
  • Norin-10 gene evolution and distribution: In the 1960s, the Norin-10 dwarfing genes were important in the production of high-yielding wheat types.

Seeds are being introduced into India

  • Correspondence with Vogel and Borlaug: In the late 1950s, M.S. Swaminathan contacted Orville Vogel and Norman Borlaug.
  • Arrival of Mexican wheat varieties: Borlaug’s Mexican wheat varieties were first planted in trial fields in the early 1960s and were later adopted on a big basis in India.
  • Transition to self-sufficiency: In the mid-1960s, India moved from being a wheat importer to becoming self-sufficient in wheat production.

Reasons for Seeking US Assistance

  • Cold War geopolitics and competition: Cold War geopolitics and superpower competition drove agricultural development assistance.
  • Advantages of India’s non-aligned status: India’s non-aligned status enabled it to receive help from both superpowers, which aided agricultural development.

Green Revolution’s Socioeconomic Benefits:

  • Increased grain yields and productivity: Beginning in the mid-1960s, the Green Revolution dramatically increased grain yields, assuring a stable food supply.
  • Food security and self-sufficiency: In the 1960s and 1970s, adoption of high-yielding cultivars increased food security and reduced reliance on imports.
  • Economic growth and poverty reduction: During the 1960s and 1970s, the Green Revolution led to rural economic growth and poverty reduction.
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