Social Issues

By mid-2023, India’s population will have surpassed China’s

According to United Nations data, India will overtake China as the world’s most populous country by mid-2023.

Report on the State of the World Population

  • The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) publishes an annual report that provides a global overview of population trends and challenges.
  • The report addresses a wide range of population-related issues, including fertility, mortality, migration, family planning, and gender equality.
  • It also offers analyses and recommendations for policymakers and governments on how to handle demographic concerns and promote long-term development.
  • The paper is widely considered as a must-read for population and development academics, policymakers, and international organisations.

Key Highlights of the 2023 report

World Population (2022)8 billion
Most populous regionsEastern and Southeastern Asia, Central and Southern Asia
World Population Growth Rate (since 2020)Less than 1%
Fertility Rate (replacement level)2.1 children per woman
Population aged 65 years or above (2050)16%
Persons aged 65 years and above (2050)More than double that of 5-year-olds and same as 12-year-olds
Regions with fertility rate at or below 2.160%
Top countries accounting for global population increase by 2050DR Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Tanzania

Way ahead

  • To address changing demographics, the UNFPA report strongly advised governments to implement policies that prioritise gender equality and human rights. Among these suggestions are:
  • Parental leave policies: Introducing paid parental leave programmes for both mothers and fathers following the birth or adoption of a child. This can serve to promote gender equality in the workplace and help families raise children.
  • Child tax credits: Providing tax credits or financial assistance to families with children to assist them in meeting the costs of child rearing. This can help to alleviate child poverty and assist families in meeting their children’s fundamental needs.
  • Gender equality policies in the workplace: Implementing gender equality policies and practises, such as equal pay for equal work, flexible work arrangements, and anti-discrimination regulations.
  • Access to sexual and reproductive health and rights for all: Providing comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services, such as family planning and maternal health care, to all people. This can aid in the prevention of unplanned pregnancies, the reduction of maternal mortality, and the promotion of individual and family health and well-being. 
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