Economics International Relations

Analysing India’s position in the G20

The theme of the 18th G20 Summit, held in New Delhi from September 9 to 10, was One Earth, One Family, One Future. This global forum met to discuss pressing topics such as food security, climate change, energy, development, healthcare, and digitization.

The main idea

  • The G20 Summit concluded successfully, with India handing over the G20 presidency to Brazil. The performance of India in key socioeconomic measures within the framework of the G20 displays a mixed picture of development and problems.

GDP per capita (1970-2022) comparison

  • India’s GDP per capita in 1970 was $111.97, placing it 18th out of 19 regions studied. India had one of the group’s lowest GDP per capita statistics.
  • 2022: India’s GDP per capita had climbed greatly to $2,388.62 by 2022. Despite this gain, India had dropped to the 19th position, suggesting that other regions had achieved more significant economic growth during this era.

Comparison of the Human Development Index (HDI) (1990-2021)

  • 1990: India’s HDI was 0.43 in 1990, suggesting a relatively low level of human development. India was near the bottom of the list of the 19 countries and regions studied at the time.
  • 2021: India’s HDI had improved to 0.63 by 2021, indicating tremendous improvement in human development over the decades. Despite this progress, India remains at the bottom of the list of 19 areas, stressing the need for greater progress in numerous elements of human development, such as life expectancy, education, and living conditions.

Health Metrics Comparison

Life Expectancy (1990-2021):

  • In 1990, the average life expectancy in India was 45.22 years.
  • China had a lower average life expectancy of 33.27 years at the same time.
  • India’s life expectancy had risen to 67.24 years by 2021.
  • Despite this improvement, India’s ranking remained unchanged, and China overtook India in terms of life expectancy.

Infant Mortality Rate (1990-2021):

  • In 1990, India had the lowest infant mortality rate among the 20 regions studied, with 88.8 per 1,000 live births.
  • India’s infant mortality rate had dropped to 25.5 per 1,000 live births by 2021.
  • In terms of infant mortality, India improved to 19th place, marginally ahead of South Africa (26.4), although it still lags behind many other regions.

Comparison of Labour Force Participation Rates (LFPR) (1990-2021-22)

In 1990,

  • India’s LFPR for people over the age of 15 was 54.2%.
  • India was ranked 18th out of the 20 regions examined in this LFPR rating.
  • In terms of LFPR, India was ahead of Italy (49.7%) and Saudi Arabia (53.3%).


  • India’s LFPR has dropped to 49.5% by 2021-22.
  • This reduction caused India’s ranking to drop to 19th place.
  • In terms of LFPR, India was now just ahead of Italy (49.4%) among the 20 regions.

Women’s Representation in Parliament (1998-2022)


  • Women made up 8.1% of the Indian Parliament in 1998.
  • In terms of women’s representation in Parliament, India was placed 15th out of 19 regions studied at the time.
  • While there were women in positions of leadership, India’s participation was low in comparison to other regions.


  • Women’s representation in the Indian Parliament nearly quadrupled to 14.9% by 2022.
  • Despite this improvement, India’s rating had dropped to 18th out of the 19 areas.
  • In terms of women’s representation in parliament, India stood marginally ahead of Japan (9.9%).

Environmental Progress

Carbon Emissions (1990 and 2020):

  • India was the lowest CO2 emitter among the 20 regions studied in 1990.
  • This proved India’s then-relatively low carbon emissions.
  • India retained its position as the lowest CO2 emitter among the same areas in 2020, suggesting a continuing trend of relatively low carbon emissions.

Adoption of Renewable Energy Between 1990 and 2015:

  • Except for the United States and Mexico, most G20 countries generated less than 2% of their electricity from renewable sources in 1990.
  • By 2015, India has made some progress, with renewable energy accounting for 5.36% of its total electricity consumption.
  • However, India ranked 13th out of the 20 regions studied, indicating rather poor development in embracing eco-friendly energy sources in comparison to several other G20 nations.

@the end

As India relinquishes the G20 presidency to Brazil, the country has an opportunity to build on its achievements and address areas that require more attention in order to establish a more balanced and equal socioeconomic landscape.

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