International Relations

46th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM 46)

The Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) will hold the 46th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM 46) in Kochi, Kerala. 

About Antarctic Treaty

Signing and Entry into ForceSigned on December 1, 1959 in Washington, DC.
It went into effect on June 23, 1961.
Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States are the 12 first countries. 
ObjectiveEnsure that Antarctica be used only for peaceful reasons, free of international conflict.
Key ProvisionsArticle I: Antarctica should be utilised for peaceful reasons exclusively.
Article II: Freedom of scientific study in Antarctica and collaboration
Article III: Scientific observations and results from Antarctica must be communicated and made publicly available. 
Territorial ClaimsNew territorial claims are strictly prohibited.
Existing claims to territorial sovereignty are preserved.
DisarmamentProhibits nuclear weapon testing.
Prohibits the dumping of radioactive waste.
Consultative MeetingsAnnual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCM), in which member states discuss treaty implementation and cooperation.
Environmental ProtectionPromotes the conservation of the Antarctic environment.
Prohibits acts that cause pollution or environmental damage. 
Mineral Resource ExploitationBans mining operations until at least 2048.
Requires consensus for any review or update. 
Membership54 parties as of 2024.
29 Consultative Parties are actively involved in decision-making.
25 non-consultative parties. 
India ratified the treaty in 1983.
Madrid ProtocolAdopted in 1991.
It came into effect in 1998.
Strengthens environmental protection efforts in the Antarctic. 

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