Science & Tech

32 CCR5-delta HIV Permanent Cure Through Gene Transplantation

This article discusses recent advances in HIV research that have resulted in the possibility of a cure for the disease.


  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks immune cells, making a person more susceptible to other infections and diseases.
  • HIV, which was discovered in 1981, is the cause of one of humanity’s deadliest and longest-lasting epidemics.
  • It is transmitted through contact with certain bodily fluids of an HIV-positive person, most commonly during unprotected sex, or through the sharing of injection drug equipment.
  • If HIV is not treated, it can lead to the disease AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
  • The human body cannot eliminate HIV, and there is no effective HIV cure.

HIV treatment at the moment

  • People with HIV, on the other hand, can live long and healthy lives by taking HIV medicine (known as antiretroviral therapy or ART) and preventing HIV transmission to their sexual partners.
  • Furthermore, there are effective methods to avoid contracting HIV through sex or drug use, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) (PEP).

What exactly is the new breakthrough?

  • Doctors chose a donor who had two copies of the CCR5-delta 32 genetic mutation, which is known to make carriers almost immune to HIV.
  • The CCR5-delta 32 genetic mutation affects the CCR5 gene, which is involved in the immune system’s response to infection.
  • The mutation results in a 32-nucleotide deletion in the gene, resulting in a truncated or shortened CCR5 protein.
  • Because this truncated protein cannot function normally, people with this mutation are largely immune to HIV infection.

In HIV research, how has the CCR5-delta 32 mutation been used?

  • Researchers have been looking into the CCR5-delta 32 mutation as a possible route to developing an HIV cure.
  • One approach entails using gene editing technologies such as CRISPR to induce the mutation in HIV-positive individuals, thereby rendering their immune cells resistant to HIV infection.
  • Another method is to use bone marrow transplants from donors who have the CCR5-delta 32 mutation.

What are the risks involved?

  • CRISPR and other gene editing technologies are still in their early stages, and there are concerns about their safety and effectiveness.
  • Furthermore, bone marrow transplantation is a complex and risky procedure that is not suitable for all HIV-positive people.
  • Finally, because not all HIV infections are caused by the CCR5 strain of the virus, using the CCR5-delta 32 mutation as an HIV cure would not be effective in all cases of HIV.

HIV/AIDS prevalence in India

  • According to the India HIV Estimation 2019 report, the estimated adult (15 to 49 years) HIV prevalence trend in India has been declining since the epidemic’s peak in 2000 and has stabilised in recent years.
  • In 2019, HIV prevalence was estimated to be 0.24% among adult males (15-49 years) and 0.20% among adult females.
  • In 2019, there were 23.48 lakh HIV-positive Indians.
  • The state of Maharashtra had the most, with 3.96 lakh, followed by Andhra Pradesh (3.14 lakh), and Karnataka.
  • ART is freely available to all who require it, and there are delegated centres throughout the country where it can be obtained.
And get notified everytime we publish a new blog post.