Governance Science & Tech

Diabetes Types 1 and 2 in Children

The National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has written to all State/UT Education Boards, saying that schools must provide adequate care/facilities for children with Type 1 diabetes. (T1D).

What is Diabetes?

  • Diabetes is a chronic medical disease in which the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels is impaired.
  • Blood sugar, also known as blood glucose, is the body’s primary source of energy.
  • Insulin, a pancreatic hormone, aids the body’s use and storage of glucose from meals.
  • Diabetes occurs when the body either does not produce enough insulin or cannot efficiently use the insulin that it does produce, resulting in high blood sugar levels.
  • High blood sugar levels can lead to severe health issues such as damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves over time.

Types of Diabetes

There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2.

  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing pancreatic cells, culminating in insulin deficiency. Diabetes of this type is most commonly diagnosed in children and young adults, but it can develop at any age. Survival needs insulin injections or pump therapy.
  • Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body becomes insulin resistant or fails to produce enough insulin to sustain normal glucose levels. Obesity, physical inactivity, and a poor diet are frequently linked with this type of diabetes. It is most commonly diagnosed in adults, but it is also becoming more prevalent in children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes treatment may include dietary adjustments, oral medications, or insulin therapy.

Diabetes is a major problem in India.

  • According to the International Diabetes Federation Atlas 2021, India has the highest number of children and teenagers with Type I Diabetes Mellitus in the world. (TIDM).
  • In Southeast Asia, there are over 2.4 lakh TID cases.

TID mitigation measures for pupils

  • In 2017, a CBSE circular allowed students with T1D in Classes X and XII to bring certain eatables to the board exam hall in order to prevent low sugar episodes.
  • They can bring medications, snacks, water, a glucometer, and testing strips with them.
  • NCPCR recommends that states enable students to use smartphones to monitor their blood sugar levels.
  • Since 1988, Tamil Nadu has provided free insulin to infants with T1D.
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